Friday, March 23, 2012

1203.4828 (Hafedh Herichi et al.)

Riemann Zeroes and Phase Transitions via the Spectral Operator on
Fractal Strings

Hafedh Herichi, Michel L. Lapidus
The spectral operator was introduced by M. L. Lapidus and M. van Frankenhuijsen [La-vF3] in their reinterpretation of the earlier work of M. L. Lapidus and H. Maier [LaMa2] on inverse spectral problems and the Riemann hypothesis. In essence, it is a map that sends the geometry of a fractal string onto its spectrum. In this survey paper, we present the rigorous functional analytic framework given by the authors in [HerLa1] and within which to study the spectral operator. Furthermore, we also give a necessary and sufficient condition for the invertibility of the spectral operator (in the critical strip) and therefore obtain a new spectral and operator-theoretic reformulation of the Riemann hypothesis. More specifically, we show that the spectral operator is invertible (or equivalently, that zero does not belong to its spectrum) if and only if the Riemann zeta function zeta(s) does not have any zeroes on the vertical line Re(s)=c. Hence, it is not invertible in the mid-fractal case when c=1/2, and it is invertible everywhere else (i.e., for all c in(0,1) with c not equal to 1/2 if and only if the Riemann hypothesis is true. We also show the existence of four types of (mathematical) phase transitions occurring for the spectral operator at the critical fractal dimension c=1/2 and c=1 concerning the shape of the spectrum, its boundedness, its invertibility as well as its quasi-invertibility.
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