## Semi-classical Orthogonal Polynomial Systems on Non-uniform Lattices, Deformations of the Askey Table and Analogs of Isomonodromy    [PDF]

N. S. Witte
A \$\mathbb{D}\$-semi-classical weight is one which satisfies a particular linear, first order homogeneous equation in a divided-difference operator \$\mathbb{D}\$. It is known that the system of polynomials, orthogonal with respect to this weight, and the associated functions satisfy a linear, first order homogeneous matrix equation in the divided-difference operator termed the spectral equation. Attached to the spectral equation is a structure which constitutes a number of relations such as those arising from compatibility with the three-term recurrence relation. Here this structure is elucidated in the general case of quadratic lattices. The simplest examples of the \$\mathbb{D}\$-semi-classical orthogonal polynomial systems are precisely those in the Askey table of hypergeometric and basic hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. However within the \$\mathbb{D}\$-semi-classical class it is entirely natural to define a generalisation of the Askey table weights which involve a deformation with respect to new deformation variables. We completely construct the analogous structures arising from such deformations and their relations with the other elements of the theory. As an example we treat the first non-trivial deformation of the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomial system defined by the \$q\$-quadratic divided-difference operator, the Askey-Wilson operator, and derive the coupled first order divided-difference equations characterising its evolution in the deformation variable. We show that this system is a member of a sequence of classical solutions to the \$ E^{(1)}_7 \$ \$q\$-Painlev\'e system.
View original: http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.2328