Isospinning hopfions    [PDF]

Derek Harland, Juha Jäykkä, Yakov Shnir, Martin Speight
The problem of constructing internally rotating solitons of fixed angular frequency $\omega$ in the Faddeev-Skyrme model is reformulated as a variational problem for an energy-like functional, called pseudoenergy, which depends parametrically on $\omega$. This problem is solved numerically using a gradient descent method, without imposing any spatial symmetries on the solitons, and the dependence of the solitons' energy on $\omega$, and on their conserved total isospin $J$, studied. It is found that, generically, the shape of a soliton is independent of $\omega$, and that its size grows monotonically with $\omega$. A simple elastic rod model of time-dependent hopfions is developed which, despite having only one free parameter, accounts well for most of the numerical results.
View original: http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.2923