Wednesday, March 13, 2013

1303.2968 (Etienne Sandier et al.)

1D Log Gases and the Renormalized Energy: Crystallization at Vanishing

Etienne Sandier, Sylvia Serfaty
We study the statistical mechanics of a one-dimensional log gas with general potential and arbitrary beta, the inverse of temperature, according to the method we introduced for two-dimensional Coulomb gases in [SS2]. Such ensembles correspond to random matrix models in some particular cases. The formal limit beta infinite corresponds to "weighted Fekete sets" and is also treated. We introduce a one-dimensional version of the "renormalized energy" of [SS1], measuring the total logarithmic interaction of an infinite set of points on the real line in a uniform neutralizing background. We show that this energy is minimized when the points are on a lattice. By a suitable splitting of the Hamiltonian we connect the full statistical mechanics problem to this renormalized energy W, and this allows us to obtain new results on the distribution of the points at the microscopic scale: in particular we show that configurations whose W is above a certain threshhold (which tends to min W as beta tends to infinity) have exponentially small probability. This shows that the configurations have increasing order and crystallize as the temperature goes to zero.
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