Wednesday, December 5, 2012

1212.0835 (Andrej Mesaros et al.)

A classification of symmetry enriched topological phases with exactly
solvable models

Andrej Mesaros, Ying Ran
Recently a new class of quantum phases of matter: symmetry protected topological states, such as topological insulators, attracted much attention. In presence of interactions, group cohomology provides a classification of these [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. These phases have short-ranged entanglement, and no topological order in the bulk. However, when long-range entangled topological order is present, it is much less understood how to classify quantum phases of matter in presence of global symmetries. Here we present a classification of bosonic gapped quantum phases with or without long-range entanglement, in the presence or absence of on-site global symmetries. In 2+1 dimensions, the quantum phases in the presence of a global symmetry group SG, and with topological order described by a finite gauge group GG, are classified by the cohomology group H^3(SGxGG,U(1)). Generally in d+1 dimensions, such quantum phases are classified by H^{d+1}(SGxGG,U(1)). Although we only partially understand to what extent our classification is complete, we present an exactly solvable local bosonic model, in which the topological order is emergent, for each given class in our classification. When the global symmetry is absent, the topological order in our models is described by the general Dijkgraaf-Witten discrete gauge theories. When the topological order is absent, our models become the exactly solvable models for symmetry protected topological phases [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. When both the global symmetry and the topological order are present, our models describe symmetry enriched topological phases. Our classification includes, but goes beyond the previously discussed projective symmetry group classification. Measurable signatures of these symmetry enriched topological phases, and generalizations of our classification are discussed.
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