Thursday, July 25, 2013

1307.6540 (Codina Cotar et al.)

Infinite-body optimal transport with Coulomb Cost    [PDF]

Codina Cotar, Gero Friesecke, Brendan Pass
We introduce and analyze symmetric infinite-body optimal transport (OT) problems with cost function of pair potential form. We show that for a natural class of such costs, the optimizer is given by the independent product measure all of whose factors are given by the one-body marginal. This is in striking contrast to standard finite-body OT problems, in which the optimizers are typically highly correlated, as well as to infinite-body OT problems with Gangbo-Swiech cost. Moreover, by adapting a construction from the study of exchangeable processes in probability theory, we prove that the corresponding $N$-body OT problem is well approximated by the infinite-body problem. To our class belongs the Coulomb cost which arises in many-electron quantum mechanics. The optimal cost of the Coulombic N-body OT problem as a function of the one-body marginal density is known in the physics and quantum chemistry literature under the name SCE functional, and arises naturally as the semiclassical limit of the celebrated Hohenberg-Kohn functional. Our results imply that in the inhomogeneous high-density limit (i.e. $N\to\infty$ with arbitrary fixed inhomogeneity profile $\rho/N$), the SCE functional converges to the mean field functional. We also present reformulations of the infinite-body and N-body OT problems as two-body OT problems with representability constraints and give a dual characterization of representable two-body measures which parallels an analogous result by Kummer on quantum representability of two-body density matrices.
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