Wednesday, July 4, 2012

1207.0148 (D. J. Rowe et al.)

Dual pairing of symmetry groups and dynamical groups in physics    [PDF]

D. J. Rowe, M. J. Carvalho, J. Repka
This article reviews many manifestations and applications of dual representations of pairs of groups, primarily in atomic and nuclear physics. Examples are given to show how such paired representations are powerful aids in understanding the dynamics associated with shell-model coupling schemes and in identifying the physical situations for which a given scheme is most appropriate. In particular, they suggest model Hamiltonians that are diagonal in the various coupling schemes. The dual pairing of group representations has been applied profitably in mathematics to the study of invariant theory. We show that parallel applications to the theory of symmetry and dynamical groups in physics are equally valuable. In particular, the pairing of the representations of a discrete group with those of a continuous Lie group or those of a compact Lie with those of a non-compact Lie group makes it possible to infer many properties of difficult groups from those of simpler groups. This review starts with the representations of the symmetric and unitary groups, which are used extensively in the many-particle quantum mechanics of bosonic and fermionic systems. It gives a summary of the many solutions and computational techniques for solving problems that arise in applications of symmetry methods in physics and which result from the famous Schur-Weyl duality theorem for the pairing of these representations. It continues to examine many chains of symmetry groups and dual chains of dynamical groups associated with the several coupling schemes in atomic and nuclear shell models and the valuable insights and applications that result from this examination.
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